Ocean Sci., 9, 301-324, 2013
www.ocean-sci.net/9/301/2013/
doi:10.5194/os-9-301-2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Long-term monitoring programme of the hydrological variability in the Mediterranean Sea: a first overview of the HYDROCHANGES network
K. Schroeder1,*, C. Millot2, L. Bengara3, S. Ben Ismail4, M. Bensi5, M. Borghini1, G. Budillon6, V. Cardin5, L. Coppola7,8, C. Curtil9, A. Drago10, B. El Moumni3, J. Font11, J. L. Fuda2, J. García-Lafuente12, G. P. Gasparini1, H. Kontoyiannis13, D. Lefevre2, P. Puig11, P. Raimbault2, G. Rougier2, J. Salat11, C. Sammari4, J. C. Sánchez Garrido12, A. Sanchez-Roman12, S. Sparnocchia14, C. Tamburini2, I. Taupier-Letage2, A. Theocharis13, M. Vargas-Yáñez15, and A. Vetrano1
1CNR-ISMAR, Forte Santa Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici, La Spezia, Italy
2Aix-Marseille Univ., Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), 13288 Marseille cedex 09, France; Université du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 La Garde cedex, France; CNRS/INSU, MIO ,UMR 7294, 13288 Marseille cedex 09, France; IRD, MIO, UR235, 13288 Marseille
3Université Abdelmalek ESSAADI, FP – Larache, Morocco
4Institut National des Sciences et Technologies de la Mer (INSTM), 28 rue 2 mars 1934 Salammbo, 2025, Tunisia
5Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c, 34010, Sgonico (Trieste), Italy
6Università degli Studi di Napoli "Parthenope", Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Ambiente, 80143 Napoli, Italy
7Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), UMS829, Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche-sur-Mer, 06234 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
8CNRS/INSU, UMS829, Observatoire Océanologique de Villefranche-sur-Mer, 06234 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
9CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille, France
10Physical Oceanography Unit, IOI-Malta Operational Centre, University of Malta, Msida MSD08, Malta
11Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37–49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain
12Physical Oceanography Group, University of Málaga, Málaga, Spain
13Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, 46.7 km Athens-Sounio Avenue, 19013, Anavyssos, Greece
14CNR-ISMAR, Viale Romolo Gessi 2, 34123 Trieste, Italy
15Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Málaga, Puerto pesquero s/n, 29640, Fuengirola, Málaga, Spain
*now at: CNR-ISMAR, Arsenale – Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F, 30122 Venezia, Italy

Abstract. The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity), collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important timescales) in key places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins), constitute a priority in the context of global changes. This led CIESM (The Mediterranean Science Commission) to support, since 2002, the HYDROCHANGES programme (http//www.ciesm.org/marine/programs/hydrochanges.htm), a network of autonomous conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensors, deployed on mainly short and easily manageable subsurface moorings, within the core of a certain water mass. The HYDROCHANGES strategy is twofold and develops on different scales. To get information about long-term changes of hydrological characteristics, long time series are needed. But before these series are long enough they allow the detection of links between them at shorter timescales that may provide extremely valuable information about the functioning of the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this paper is to present the history of the programme and the current set-up of the network (monitored sites, involved groups) as well as to provide for the first time an overview of all the time series collected under the HYDROCHANGES umbrella, discussing the results obtained thanks to the programme.

Citation: Schroeder, K., Millot, C., Bengara, L., Ben Ismail, S., Bensi, M., Borghini, M., Budillon, G., Cardin, V., Coppola, L., Curtil, C., Drago, A., El Moumni, B., Font, J., Fuda, J. L., García-Lafuente, J., Gasparini, G. P., Kontoyiannis, H., Lefevre, D., Puig, P., Raimbault, P., Rougier, G., Salat, J., Sammari, C., Sánchez Garrido, J. C., Sanchez-Roman, A., Sparnocchia, S., Tamburini, C., Taupier-Letage, I., Theocharis, A., Vargas-Yáñez, M., and Vetrano, A.: Long-term monitoring programme of the hydrological variability in the Mediterranean Sea: a first overview of the HYDROCHANGES network, Ocean Sci., 9, 301-324, doi:10.5194/os-9-301-2013, 2013.
 
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