1Hydrographic Institute of the Republic of Croatia, Split, Croatia
2Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Croatia
3CNR – Istituto di Scienze Marine, Venice, Italy
4Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia
5DISVA, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy
6CNR – Istituto di Scienze Marine, Bologna, Italy
7Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
8National Institute of Biology, Marine Biological Station, Piran, Slovenia
9Regional Environmental Protection Agency – ARPA FVG, Palmanova, Italy
10Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, Trieste, Italy
11CNR – Istituto di Scienze Marine, Trieste, Italy
Received: 09 Nov 2012 – Discussion started: 06 Dec 2012
Abstract. In this paper we document dense water formation throughout the Adriatic shelf and coastal area in January/February 2012, resulting in record-breaking densities observed during and after the event. The unprecedented dense water generation was preconditioned by a dry and warm year which resulted in a significant reduction of coastal freshwaters, superimposed on a long-term basin-wide salinity increase. The final event that triggered the dense water formation was an extended period of cold weather with strong and severe winds. Record-breaking potential density anomalies (above 30 kg m−3) were measured at several formation sites. Accumulated surface net heat and water losses in some coastal regions exceeded 1.5 GJ m−2 and 250 kg m−2 over 21 days, respectively. Excessiveness, importance of shelf-type dense water formation and effects on the thermohaline circulation and deep aquatic systems are discussed.
Revised: 17 May 2013 – Accepted: 17 May 2013 – Published: 14 Jun 2013
Mihanović, H., Vilibić, I., Carniel, S., Tudor, M., Russo, A., Bergamasco, A., Bubić, N., Ljubešić, Z., Viličić, D., Boldrin, A., Malačič, V., Celio, M., Comici, C., and Raicich, F.: Exceptional dense water formation on the Adriatic shelf in the winter of 2012, Ocean Sci., 9, 561-572, doi:10.5194/os-9-561-2013, 2013.