Journal cover Journal topic
Ocean Science An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 2.289 IF 2.289
  • IF 5-year value: 2.756 IF 5-year 2.756
  • CiteScore value: 2.76 CiteScore 2.76
  • SNIP value: 1.050 SNIP 1.050
  • SJR value: 1.554 SJR 1.554
  • IPP value: 2.65 IPP 2.65
  • h5-index value: 30 h5-index 30
  • Scimago H index value: 41 Scimago H index 41
Volume 14, issue 6 | Copyright

Special issue: Shipping and the Environment – From Regional to Global...

Ocean Sci., 14, 1373-1383, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 07 Nov 2018

Research article | 07 Nov 2018

Modelling of ships as a source of underwater noise

Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen1, Lasse Johansson1, Mattias Liefvendahl2,3, Rickard Bensow2, Peter Sigray3, Martin Östberg3, Ilkka Karasalo3, Mathias Andersson3, Heikki Peltonen4, and Jukka Pajala4 Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen et al.
  • 1Atmospheric Composition Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, 00560 Helsinki, Finland
  • 2Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
  • 3Underwater Technology, Defence and Security, Systems and Technology, Swedish Defense Research Agency, 16490 Stockholm, Sweden
  • 4Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, 00790 Helsinki, Finland

Abstract. In this paper, a methodology is presented for modelling underwater noise emissions from ships based on realistic vessel activity in the Baltic Sea region. This paper combines the Wittekind noise source model with the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) in order to produce regular updates for underwater noise from ships. This approach allows the construction of noise source maps, but requires parameters which are not commonly available from commercial ship technical databases. For this reason, alternative methods were necessary to fill in the required information. Most of the parameters needed contain information that is available during the STEAM model runs, but features describing propeller cavitation are not easily recovered for the world fleet. Baltic Sea ship activity data were used to generate noise source maps for commercial shipping. Container ships were recognized as the most significant source of underwater noise, and the significant potential for an increase in their contribution to future noise emissions was identified.

Publications Copernicus
Special issue
Short summary
This paper presents the implementation of an underwater noise emission module in the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model. This model is based on real shipping activity, as described by the vessel navigation systems, and combines it with technical descriptions of each ship. The methodology described facilitates the expression of underwater noise as emission maps, which describe the energy emitted to the water. This enables regular reporting of shipping noise and facilitates further research.
This paper presents the implementation of an underwater noise emission module in the Ship...