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Volume 5, issue 2 | Copyright

Special issue: Thermophysical properties of seawater

Ocean Sci., 5, 91-100, 2009
© Author(s) 2009. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  05 May 2009

05 May 2009

The density of seawater as a function of salinity (5 to 70 g kg−1) and temperature (273.15 to 363.15 K)

F. J. Millero and F. Huang F. J. Millero and F. Huang
  • Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA

Abstract. New seawater density measurements were made as a function of temperature T=(273.15 to 363.15) K and salinity (5 to 70 g kg−1). The measurements (N=230) from T=273.15 to 313.15 K and Practical Salinity (S) from 0 to 40 were found to be in good agreement (σ=0.0036 kg m−3) with the equation of state of seawater (Millero and Poisson, 1981) made on samples with a known chlorinity (Cl). These results indicate that the Practical Salinities (S) are in agreement to within ±0.003 kg m−3 with the values calculated from the Chlorinity, SCl=1.80655 Cl. The measurements from 298.15 to 363.15 were used to extend the equation of state to high temperatures and salinities. All the densities were made relative to pure water (ρ−ρ0 where ρ0 is the density for pure water) were fitted to equations of the form

(ρ−ρ0)/(kg m−3)=A SA+B SA1.5+C SA2

where A, B, and C are functions of temperature and SA (g kg−1) is the absolute salinity, SA=(35.16504/35) S g kg−1. The fitted results from SA=0 to 50 g kg−1 and T=273.15 to 313.15 K (N=242) gave standard errors of 0.0037 kg m−3. The fitted results from 298.15 to 363.15 K (N=280) gave standard errors of 0.0063 kg m−3 and all the results (N=522) from 273.15 to 363.15 K gave standard errors of 0.0063 kg m−3. The earlier density measurements (Millero et al., 1976b; Poisson et al.,1980) used to determine the equation of state of seawater (Millero and Poisson, 1981) were combined to derive equations that are valid from 273.15 to 313.15 K and 273.15 to 363.15 K. The standard errors of these fits are respectively, 0.0038 kg m−3 (N=713) and 0.0063 kg m−3 (N=962). These new measurements expand the equation of state of seawater to a wider range of temperature (273.15 to 363.15) K and absolute salinity (0 to 70 kg m−3.

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